The social organization of the Mongols was, however, characterized by pastoralism and a decentralized patrilineal system of…. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Thank You for Your Contribution! Read More on This Topic. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context.
A Devastating Moment in History for Muslims in the Middle East
A truly global repository of human knowledge, this Arab-Muslim imperial capital also welcomed—indeed encouraged—scholars from across the known world. As its wealth and fame grew, more and more scholars and engineers were drawn to the city, from all over civilization.
If one thinks of London in —the year when Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee—the English city on the Thames was by then the largest, and most important, city on earth. Even today, London remains an impressive and significant place, and not only as the center of a mighty empire on which the sun never set.
But in , London was peerless in the world, with nowhere else coming close to matching its power and influence. It was the capital, and the fulcrum, of the British Empire, which, in turn, was about to become the largest empire ever in history. For many historians, the arrival of the Mongols into the heart of Muslim faith and empire is the single most devastating moment in the history of the Muslim Middle East.
Rather than submit, the Abbasid caliph challenged the Mongols to try and storm his city, if they dared. Doing what they are most famous for, the Mongols thrashed Baghdad. In 10 days of unremitting violence and destruction, Baghdad and its inhabitants were completely, and utterly vanquished.
Almost without exception, the population was either put to the sword or sold into slavery. The River Tigris ran red—to cite one of the most over-quoted, and overwrought phrases in history—with the blood of slaughtered men, women and children. Every building of note in Baghdad including mosques, palaces, and markets was utterly destroyed, among them the world-famous House of Wisdom.
After this, every building of note in Baghdad including mosques, palaces, and markets was utterly destroyed, among them the world-famous House of Wisdom. Hundreds of thousands of priceless manuscripts and books were tossed into the river, clogging the arterial waterway with so many texts, according to eyewitnesses, that soldiers could ride on horseback from one side to the other.
And, of course, the river turned from red to black with ink. The Sack of Baghdad fits, like a hinge, almost exactly in the middle of two defining dates in the history of Islam, from the founding of the faith in the year to the end of the last caliphate in Even by the standards of the day, the destruction was shocking, and the results long-lasting, if not permanent.
Where did they come from? And is there any reason to think that they were any more destructive than other peoples at the time? The Mongols, an ethnic group, originating in north and central Asia, were typically pastoral peoples, whose nomadic lifestyle inevitably brought them into conflict with more settled populations. Probably the best example of how settled peoples tried to restrict their otherwise free movement is the Great Wall of China.
The wall was essentially built for this purpose: As one writer put it, while Muslims built cities—Baghdad and Cairo, for example—Mongols destroyed them. This preference for nomadism over a settled existence is central to the view of the Mongols as especially destructive. Does this mean that the Mongols were inherently more ruthless or violent than Muslims?
Or crusading Christians? Not necessarily. Rather, it shows that their priority, in terms of conquest, was for land, for grazing—for space even—rather than for cities and confinement. Contemporary chroniclers tell us that Mongol warriors were most comfortable in the saddle, literally it seems.
Also, all warriors owned numerous mounts, allowing them to cover larger distances than more traditional cavalry found in the Near East and Europe. While they rode light into battle, the Mongols used harnessed oxen to pull their heavier and more cumbersome possessions from place to place. An important facet of the Mongol way of war and conquest was their use of terror as a tactic.
The banging of metal pots and the rattling of bells was the usual way of announcing the start of a battle. Whenever they entered new territory, the Mongols would offer the local rulers an opportunity to surrender. But in the language of many a salesman, this was a never-to-be-repeated, one-time offer. For those foolish enough not to surrender immediately, conquest and destruction without quarter would be their lot.
And the people of Baghdad knew this. In , just 52 years before the Sack of Baghdad, the Mongol Empire was formed and led by the legendary Genghis Khan.
Pictures of our nude shemale cocks rubbing together
Khan is originally a Mongolian word that means military leader, or sovereign, a king, in English.
Being accepted as the Great Khan effectively elevated Genghis to the status of emperor. His grandsons now ruled the Mongolian Empire. Hulagu marched at the head of perhaps the largest Mongolian army ever assembled, consisting of as many as , troops, with Baghdad one of several goals for this mission.
First, Hulagu was told to subdue southern Iran, which he did. Next, he was to destroy the infamous Assassins. A breakaway Nizari-Ismaili-Shia sect, founded in the 11 th century, the Assassins had achieved infamy for the political assassinations—hence, the term we use today—carried out by certain of their number.
Although it was known that the Assassins were based at the castle of Alamut, in northwestern Iran, many of their adversaries thought they were somehow invincible because of the stealth they typically employed. Hulagu Khan proved this was not the case. In addition, there were Muslim soldiers from various Turkic and Persian tribes, and 1, Chinese engineers—artillery specialists, who were always in demand when the need arose to reduce walls to rubble.
The Abbasids—the third Islamic caliphate to rule the Muslim Middle East since the death of Muhammad—had risen to power in , after overthrowing their rivals, the Damascus-based Umayyads. A new Abbasid caliphate deserved a new capital, which they established in Baghdad, in , and immediately built into an imperial city worthy of their greatness.
Alongside Persian scholarship and cultural traditions—and Arab authority—one saw people from other parts of Asia, Europe and Africa. Numerous Jews and Christians also pursued studies there. Among innumerable libraries and other centers of learning in ancient Baghdad, the greatest of them all was founded by the early Abbasid caliphs.
Called the Bayt al-Hikma—or House of Wisdom—this was the place that the best scholars and professors aspired to reach, and not just Muslims from the Islamic world. There were two distinct sides to scholarship in Baghdad. One was translation work, with texts from India, Persia, Greece gathered in huge numbers. Combined with this extensive translation work, however, was a wealth of original scholarship, funded and encouraged by the caliphs.
The arts and sciences alike were covered, so that advances were made in almost every imaginable subject, including mathematics, medicine, astronomy, physics, cartography, zoology and poetry. In the year , al-Mustasim became the 37 th caliph in the Abbasid line. And by this stage, the Abbasid caliphs were largely figureheads, propped up by outside forces.
If they were important at all, it was as the inheritors of Islamic orthodoxy, and as beacons of cultural greatness, but not as a political power to be obeyed nor a military force to be feared. Indeed, the Abbasids already were in the habit of paying annual tribute to the Mongols.
And the city was still large and prosperous. China was the main goal. Genghis Khan first secured his western flank by a tough campaign against the Tangut kingdom of Xixia , a northwestern border state of China, and then fell upon the Jin empire of northern China in In he allowed himself to be bought off, temporarily, with a huge amount of booty, but in operations were resumed, and Beijing was taken.
Subsequently, the more systematic subjugation of northern China was in the hands of his general Muqali. It was in this war that the Mongols earned their reputation for savagery and terror. City after city was stormed, the inhabitants massacred or forced to serve as advance troops for the Mongols against their own people. He finally withdrew in and did not lead his armies into war again until the final campaign against Xixia in — He died on August 18, He had great physical strength, tenacity of purpose, and an unbreakable will.
He was not obstinate and would listen to advice from others, including his wives and mother. He was flexible. He could deceive but was not petty. He had a sense of the value of loyalty, unlike Toghril or Jamuka. Enemies guilty of treachery toward their lords could expect short shrift from him, but he would exploit their treachery at the same time. He was religiously minded, carried along by his sense of a divine mission, and in moments of crisis he would reverently worship the Eternal Blue Heaven, the supreme deity of the Mongols.
So much is true of his early life. The picture becomes less harmonious as he moves out of his familiar sphere and comes into contact with the strange, settled world beyond the steppe. At first he could not see beyond the immediate gains to be got from massacre and rapine and, at times, was consumed by a passion for revenge. Yet all his life he could attract the loyalties of men willing to serve him, both fellow nomads and civilized men from the settled world.
His fame could even persuade the aged Daoist sage Changchun Qiu Chuji to journey the length of Asia to discourse upon religious matters. He was above all adaptable, a man who could learn. Organization, discipline , mobility, and ruthlessness of purpose were the fundamental factors in his military successes. Massacres of defeated populations, with the resultant terror, were weapons he regularly used.
His practice of summoning cities to surrender and of organizing the methodical slaughter of those who did not submit has been described as psychological warfare; but, although it was undoubtedly policy to sap resistance by fostering terror, massacre was used for its own sake. Indeed, the Mongols were unaccountable. Resistance brought certain destruction, but at Balkh , now in Afghanistan , the population was slaughtered in spite of a prompt surrender, for tactical reasons.
The achievements of Genghis Khan were grandiose. Yet he did not exhaust his people. At the time of his death, Genghis Khan had conquered the land mass extending from Beijing to the Caspian Sea , and his generals had raided Persia and Russia. His successors would extend their power over the whole of China , Persia, and most of Russia. They did what he did not achieve and perhaps never really intended—that is, to weld their conquests into a tightly organized empire.
The destruction brought about by Genghis Khan survives in popular memory, but far more significant, these conquests were but the first stage of the Mongol Empire, the greatest continental empire of medieval and modern times. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.
Written By: Charles R. Last Updated: May 16, See Article History. Alternative Titles: Top Questions. Read More on This Topic. Start Your Free Trial Today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Genghis Khan rose to supremacy over the Mongol tribes in the steppe in , and within a few years he attempted to conquer northern China.
Chinggis Genghis Khan began his campaign against this state in and incorporated it into his expanding Mongol Empire in The founder of the Dge-lugs-pa Yellow…. During the early stages of Mongol supremacy, the empire established by Genghis absorbed civilizations in which a strong, unified, and well-organized state power had developed.
The social organization of the Mongols was, however, characterized by pastoralism and a decentralized patrilineal system of…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
The rise of Genghis Khan early military communication In military communication: Early development organization of the Mongol Empire In Mongol empire: The Mongol conquest of China In Qinghai: History Beijing In Beijing: The early empires Iran In Iran: First Mongol incursions Iraq In Iraq: The Mongol invasion View More. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback.
Edit Mode. Genghis Khan. Tips For Editing. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context.
Internet URLs are the best. Thank You for Your Contribution! Uh Oh. There was a problem with your submission. Please try again later. Additional Reading. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Keep Exploring Britannica Barack Obama. Barack Obama, 44th president of the United States —17 and the first African American to hold the….
Read this Article. Abraham Lincoln, 16th president of the United States —65 , who preserved the Union during the American…. Vladimir Putin, Russian intelligence officer and politician who served as president —, —….
Not necessarily. The arts and sciences alike were covered, so that advances were made in almost every imaginable subject, including mathematics, medicine, astronomy, physics, cartography, zoology and poetry. For many historians, the arrival of the Mongols into the heart of Muslim faith and empire is the single most devastating moment in the history of the Muslim Middle East. It was only gradually, through contact with men from the more settled states, that Genghis Khan came to realize that there were more sophisticated ways of enjoying power than simply raiding, destroying, and plundering. Either the familiar tribe and clan names had fallen out of use or those bearing them were to be found, subsequently, scattered all over the Mongol world, testifying to the wreck of the traditional clan and tribe system. Khan is originally a Mongolian word that means military leader, or sovereign, a king, in English. For many historians, the arrival of the Mongols into the heart of Muslim faith and empire is the single most devastating moment in the history of the Muslim Middle East.
- During the early stages of Mongol supremacy, the empire established by Genghis absorbed civilizations in which a strong, unified, and well-organized state power had developed.
- Rather than submit, the Abbasid caliph challenged the Mongols to try and storm his city, if they dared.
- Lusty blonde lia plays with herself on staircase
- The early empires Iran In Iran:
- Female fitness model hot bikini porn
- totally ready turn submission mongols then to her began the to horror the heck
- Adding fuel to the fire, al-Mustasim is said to have slighted Shia Muslims by various acts and decrees.
By Rafiq A. The Jin emperor in northern China, too, looked on him as of no great consequence. A weak-willed, even dissolute character, al-Mustasim was happier hanging out with musicians and drinking wine than he was ruling…. At first he could not see beyond the immediate gains to be got from massacre and rapine and, at times, was consumed by a passion for revenge. The social organization of the Mongols was, however, characterized by pastoralism and a decentralized patrilineal system of…. On another occasion horse thieves came and stole eight of the nine horses that the small family owned.